Saturday, March 14, 2020

Mujtaba 456 (4) Essays

Mujtaba 456 (4) Essays Mujtaba 456 (4) Essay Mujtaba 456 (4) Essay Name: Tutor: Course: Date: Mujtaba 456 (4) Growth of population has numerous effects on a country. America is no exception. This article discusses several issues concerning this. First, the article discusses the causes of the exponential population growth, experienced between 1800 and 1890, in the United States. Next, the article breaks down the population growth, according to origins and localities. Thirdly, this article explains the role of immigration in this surge. Finally, the article attempts to explain the costs of immigration to the United States. The population of the United States more than tripled, in the period between 1860 and 1890. This is attributable to several factors. First, Immigration plays a significant role in the aforementioned growth. Immigration depends on two factors, the Atlantic slave trade and European Immigration. Hughes and Cain (107) state: â€Å"the German speaking regions of Europe produced nearly 1 million immigrants to the United States.† The influx of European settlers was mostly due to crop failures, such as the Irish famine. Second, there was a high birth rate in the United States. Hughes Cain (104) state that, the birth rate went down to 41.4 per 1000 births in 1860, from 55 per 1000 earlier. This rate was still higher than other European countries. The aforementioned population surge significantly affected urban regions. Between 1860 and 1890, the American urban population grew by over 20 percent. The high immigration of people to the more-developed North Eastern cities proves this. Hughes and Cain (110) state: â€Å"3.6 million foreign-born whites lived in the Northeast and East-North-Central states; a mere 391,000 lived in the Southern states†. In that period, the white population grew by around 86 percent. Similarly, the foreign-born population grew by around 14 percent. However, by 1890, the birth rate had slowed by a half. The population growth in America had various results, in an economic perspective. First, it enabled the manufacturing sector of the economy to grow. This fact is attributable to ready labor, provided by the immigrants. Hughes Cain (114) state: â€Å"in the 1840s, manufacturing employment grew more rapidly than any other sector (123.2 percent), increasing its share of total employment from 8.9 percent to 14.0 percent.† Construction and the service industries also grew at unheard of rates (Hughes Cain 114). Therefore, the real output per capita of the United States grew largely. However, the rise in population also led to more mouths to feed countered this effect to some extent. The real income growth per capita was around 1 percent for that period. As a result, the growth of population in the country stands questioning. The article has tried to explain the role of population growth on the economy of the United States. However, other effects have also been discussed, such as, demographics of States/regions in the United States. The article also discusses the reasons for immigration into the United States by European people, though to a lesser extent. From this article, we see that, the American economy benefited from immigration from Europe. Hughes, Jonathan R. T, and Louis P. Cain. American Economic History. Reading, Mass: Addison-Wesley, 2010. Print.

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